(PLEASE NOTE:  Due to the high volume of content contained in the
 historical calendar, we will be publishing each month separately.)



 This calendar is dedicated to the teachers and schoolchildren of the Samoan Islands.





January 1:

On January 1, 1889, Dr. Wilhelm Heinrich Solf, Ph.D. ( in philology) who was to become the first Imperial Governor of German Samoa (1900-1910) was assigned to the German Embassy in Calcutta, India, as an attaché. (Theroux 1983b: 52)

On January 1, 1901, the first "Ordinance to regulate the assessment and collection of native taxes" took effect at the U.S. Naval Station Tutuila. The Commandant, Commander Benjamin Franklin Tilley, USN, had issued this ordinance "at the request of the natives in district meetings." (Bryan 1927: 61)

On January 1, 1921, American Samoa's Chief Medical Officer, Lieutenant Commander H.L. Dollard, issued his "Sanitary Instructions for the People of American Samoa." One copy was given to each family, and "the village chief was held responsible for the enforcement of the instructions." (Bryan 1927: 77)

On January 1, 1924, Captain Edward Stanley Kellogg, Governor of American Samoa, issued his "Regulation No. 2: A REGULATION To prohibit the "death feast" in the Manu'a group of islands." This edict forbade the Samoan customs known as lau'ava and aitagi, and provided "a fine not exceeding $25 in amount or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 60 days, with or without hard labor, or both, such fine and imprisonment in the discretion of the court." (Noble 1931: 97) 

On January 1, 1926, American Samoa was devastated by a hurricane. Olosega, in the Manu'a Islands, suffered the most. The Navy Department gave the Territory 50 tons of rice, 10 tons of salmon and 15 tons of biscuits. (Bryan 1927: 4)

 On January 1, 1945, "The [U.S.] Naval Station Tutuila was to be closed down to peacetime operation." (Burke 1945b: 75) 

On January 1, 1945, the U.S. Naval Station Tutuila's sono-buoys (submarine detection devices) were removed from Pago Pago Harbor. (Burke 1945b: 142, vii)

On January 1, 1945, all excess military equipment had been sent from Tutuila to forward areas. (Burke 1945b: 116) 

On January 1, 1962, Western Samoa became the first independent state in the tropical South Pacific, and also the world's first independent "micro-state." Malietoa Tanumafili II and Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole were joint Heads of State for life. Mata'afa Faumuina Fiame Mulinu'u II was Western Samoa's first Prime Minister. (Davidson 1967: 408-411)

 January 2:

On January 2, 1877, Captain William H. ("Bully") Hayes, blackbirder, kidnapper and thief, left "golden Apia, his best-loved port in the Pacific" for Kusaie (now Kosrae) in the Caroline Islands. (Michener and Day 1960: 224) 

On January 2, 1877, the cornerstone of the Catholic church at Lano, Savai'i was blessed. (Heslin 1995: 36) 

On January 2, 1882, the Sisters of the Third Order of Mary opened their school--"a beautiful two-storeyed building"--at Savalalo, Apia. (Heslin 1995: 93)

On January 2, 1891, Otto Conrad Waldemar Cedercrantz of Sweden assumed his duties as Chief Justice of Samoa in Apia. Robert Louis Stevenson described him as "a man of culture and ability; in public of an excellent presence; in private, of a most engaging cordiality." (Morrell 1960: 298)

On January 2, 1937, American Samoa's Governor, Captain MacGillivray Milne, informed the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral William Daniel Leahy, that the members of the Fita Fita Guard were "generally recognized as the aristocrats of American Samoa. As long as the Navy Department and the Commandant of this station expect no more of the Fita Fitas than did Commandant Tilley, the interests of the United States Government will be well served." (Thompson 1989: 19)

On January 2, 1978, Hapwell Rex Lee finished his term as American Samoa's last appointed civil governor. (ASG: Governors' List)

On January 2, 1989, Peter Tali Coleman began his fourth gubernatorial term (the third as an elected governor). Galea'i Poumele was inaugurated as American Samoa's third elected Lieutenant Governor. (ASG: Governors' List)

 January 3:

On January 3, 1859, William J. Swann, father of Agnes Genevieve Swann (later to be the internationally famous hotelier "Aggie Grey,") was born in the English county of Lincolnshire, "where his father, James Butler Swann, was a prosperous chemist." (Eustis 1979: 13) 

On January 3, 1887, Mr. John E. Bush, Hawaiian King Kalakaua's "Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the King of Samoa," arrived in Apia with his delegation. Bush drank kava with King Malietoa Laupepa, and presented him with the "Grand Cross of the Order of Oceania." Both parties bound themselves "to enter into a political confederation," subject to existing treaty obligations. The "convention" was signed on February 17, 1887. (Bryan 1927: 31; Kuykendall 1967: 327-328) 

On January 3, 1911, American Samoa's Governor, Commander William Michael Crose, appointed a Board of Education, comprised of the following members: Navy Chaplain H.M.T. Pearce; Navy Assistant Surgeon W.H. Connor, and Mrs. Charles Moore, wife of a Fagatogo school teacher. (Bryan 1927: 82)

 On January 3, 1966, 16-year-old Robin Lee Graham left Apia for Pago Pago aboard his sailboat Dove, on his solo voyage around the world. (Graham 1972: 39)

 On January 3, 1978, Peter Tali Coleman began his second gubernatorial term (his first as American Samoa's first elected Governor), thus becoming the only person to serve as both an appointed and an elected governor of American Samoa. Tufele Li'amatua was inaugurated as the first elected Lieutenant Governor. (ASG: Governors List) 

On January 3, 1985, A.P. Lutali and Eni Fa'aua'a Hunkin began their first term as American Samoa's second elected Governor and Lieutenant Governor. (ASG: Governors List)

 On January 3, 1997, Tauese Pita Fiti Sunia and Togiola Talalelei Tulafono were inaugurated as American Samoa's third elected governor and fifth elected lieutenant governor. Tauese became the only elected governor who previously served as a cabinet member (Director of Education, January 3, 1985-January 2, 1989) and Lieutenant Governor (January 3, 1993-January 3, 1997). (Samoa News, 01/06/97)

 January 4:

On January 4, 1899, The "Three Consuls" (of England, Germany and the United States) recognized Mata'afa Iosefo's government in Apia. (Theroux 1985) 

On January 4, 1913, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II, Western Samoa's Head of State, was born to Malietoa Tanumafili I and Momoe Lupeuluiva Meleisea. (Sutter 1989: 159) 

On January 4, 1921, American Samoa's Governor, Captain Waldo Evans, issued his "Regulation No. 2-1921: Offenses Against the Government and the Civil Rights of Citizens." (Noble 1931: 14-15) 

On January 4, 1993, A.P. Lutali began his second term as American Samoa's second elected Governor, with Tauese P. F. Sunia taking office as  the Territory's fourth elected Lieutenant Governor. (ASG: Governors' List)

 January 5:

On January 5, 1912, the Australian Mail Line made its last call at Pago Pago. It was replaced by the Oceanic Steamship Company of San Francisco. (Crose 1912: 4; Bryan 1927: 110)

On January 5, 1942, the U.S. Navy began mining the approaches to Pago Pago Harbor. The Naval Station Commandant, Captain Laurence Wild, so notified Mr. Alfred Clarke Turnbull, New Zealand's Administrator of Western Samoa. (Burke 1945b: 44) 

On January 5, 1942, the U.S. Navy's Bureau of Ordnance notified the Commandant of the U.S. Naval Station Tutuila that light indicator nets would be supplied for Pago Pago Harbor. (Burke 1945b: 137)

On January 5, 1943, the 3rd Marine Raider Battalion conducted a reconnaissance of Rose Atoll. (Anonymous 1945: 24)

On January 5, 1966, Robin Lee Graham arrived in Pago Pago from Apia aboard Dove, on his solo circumnavigation. (Graham 1972: 39)

January 6

On January 6, 1903, the U.S. Naval Station Tutuila received its first foreign guest, Dr. Wilhelm Heinrich Solf, the Imperial Governor of German Samoa, who arrived on board SS Ventura at 6:10 a.m. He was accompanied by Lieutenant Reisner of the German Army, and by his secretary, Mr. von Vignaud. Governor Solf and his party dined aboard the Naval Station Ship, USS Wheeling, with the Naval Station Commandant, Commander E.B. Underwood. After supper, Dr. Solf sailed to Apia aboard Wheeling to assume his gubernatorial duties. (Thompson 1990: 8) 

On January 6, 1942, the 2nd Marine Brigade, 4,798 strong, departed San Diego, California, aboard the Matson liners Lurline, Matsonia and Monterey, accompanied by a fleet oiler and an ammunition ship. The fleet was escorted partway by USS Yorktown's carrier group (Task Force 17), and partway by that of USS Enterprise. (Denfeld 1989: 33; Hough et al. 1958: 88; Metzger 1982: 28, 30; Morison III, 1948: 259; Willmott 1983: 149)

On January 6, 1997, Tropical Storm "Evan" began to develop south of Samoa. During the next seven days, Evan followed a clockwise course from south-southwest-west-northwest-north. Maximum wind speeds during Evan's stay reached 67 mph. Rains were heavy, and flooding was widespread. (Samoa News 01/13/97)

 January 7:

On January 7, 1852, French Marist Bishop Pierre Bataillon bought a piece of land from William Pritchard at Mulivai, Apia for the central station and Cathedral. "Brother Jacques began building a house near the Mulivai Stream. The work was difficult because the site was low-lying and water-logged. They had to dig almost 3 meters deep and put in stones gathered from wherever they could be obtained. The first workers to be employed were some Negroes from the United States. They soon gave up and were replaced by some Hawaiians, who did not last long either. The work was completed by a team of Samoans and Wallisians....It was not until 1867 that the church was completed." (Heslin 1995: iii, 33)

On January 7, 1907, American Samoa's Governor, Commander Charles Brainard Taylor Moore, issued his "Regulation No. 1-1907: Cricket Games," which stated that "The game of cricket and other games, when played between persons of one village against persons of another village, or between the people of one country against any other country, are prohibited, unless the written permission of the governor be first obtained, enabling such game to be played." This regulation stipulated that violators could be fined up to $15, or serve a prison term, "with or without hard labor," not to exceed 60 days. (Noble 1931: 25)

On January 7, 1917, the Government of Western Samoa estimated that there were 100 Samoan-Chinese couples living on its plantations. The Chinese consul in Apia, Lin Jun Chao, estimated that there were 118 afasaina (Sino-Samoan) children and about 1,200 afakasi (part-Europeans) therein. (Field 1984: 31) 

On January 7, 1997, Polynesian Airlines Aolele Flight PH211 (a De Havilland Twin Otter airplane) crashed into Mount Sagato Iosefo near Moamoa, Western Samoa, killing three of the five people aboard. The plane was diverted from the Fagali'i airport, and was instructed to land at Faleolo, due to bad weather caused by Tropical Storm "Evan." Approaching Faleolo, Captain Colin ("Gus") Pyper was told to turn around and attempt a landing at Fagali'i; in so doing, the Otter crashed near Chanel College. (Tuiletufuga 01/08/1997; Vitolio 01/15/1997)

 January 8:

On January 8, 1915, three people were killed in a Manu'a hurricane. A boy was drowned, a woman was killed by a falling tree, and a man was decapitated by a flying piece of roofing iron. (Theroux 1985)

On January 8, 1948, Captain Edward Stanley Kellogg, 15th naval governor of American Samoa (September 4, 1923-March 17, 1925), "Died at the age of the Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, after a long illness." (USNHC: Kellogg RO)

 January 9:

On January 9, 1930, an article in the Western Samoan Mau's newspaper, the New Zealand Samoa Guardian, criticized New Zealand's Administrator of Western Samoa, Major General Sir George Spafford Richardson, observing that he "barked at them [the Samoans] in his pigeon-Samoan [sic] that he was so vain in displaying." (Davidson 1967: 111)

On January 9, 1941, a board of four U.S. Naval officers, chaired by Lieutenant Commander N.W. Sears, prepared a joint plan for the defense of Samoa, based on recommendations made by Marine Corps Captain Alfred R. Pefley in 1940. The defenses included four 6-inch guns, six 3-inch guns and fourteen 50-caliber antiaircraft guns. Provisions were also made for patrol vessels, coastal lookouts and mine warfare. (Burke 1945b: 28) 

January 10:

On January 10, 1914, the Department of Public Health was established in American Samoa, and was headed by "the Senior Medical Officer of the United States Naval Station, Tutuila." (Bryan 1927: 66) 

On January 10, 1915, the Manu'a hurricane destroyed the Papatea School, which was one of American Samoa's first public schools. (It was rebuilt and reopened in April, 1920). (Bryan 1927: 86) 

On January 10, 1918, the Governor General of New Zealand sent telegrams to the Secretary of State for the Colonies in London and to the Administrator of Western Samoa, in which he stated his belief that New Zealand must retain the German colonies that she captured during World War I. He asked Western Samoa's Administrator to send evidence showing "that the natives of Samoa appreciate, and desire to remain under, British [i.e., New Zealand] rule." (Davidson 1967: 97-98n.) 

On January 10, 1929, American Samoa's Governor, Captain Stephen Victor Graham, amended the Codification of the Regulations and Orders for the Government of American Samoa by adding "Section 64: Immigration." (Noble 1931: 45-46)

 On January 10, 1944, "Lieutenant Commander C.T. GILLIAM, USNR, reported to Commander, Service Squadron, South Pacific Force his recommendations for establishment of facilities and allowance for Tutuila. This included all Army, Navy and Marine personnel on the island." Gilliam proposed that "the personnel allowance for Tutuila was to be cut down to 77 officers and 1717 enlisted men by June 1944. In the redeployment program this was not accomplished until January 1945. Lieutenant Commander GILLIAM also suggested that all salvageable materials be shipped to forward areas as soon as they were available." (Burke 1945b: 74 n.53)

 January 11

On January 11, 1927, American Samoa's Governor, Captain Henry Francis Bryan, amended "Regulation No. 5-1900" to include provision for "An annual fono or general assembly [which] shall be held in the administration building, naval station, between the 1st and 15th of November." (Noble 1931: 8)

 On January 11, 1938, Pan American World Airways' Samoan Clipper (a Sikorsky S-42B flying boat, piloted by Captain Edwin Musick) exploded northwest of Tutuila, at 14° 08' South Latitude and 170° 51' West Longitude, shortly after taking off from Pago Pago Harbor. The explosion occurred when one of the Clipper's engines developed an oil leak. In order to lighten the airplane and make a safe landing, Captain Musick decided to jettison his excess fuel. His last message, at 8:27 a.m., said "We are going to dump gas and we can't use the radio during the dumping. Stand by." The fuel apparently streamed over the lowered flaps and struck a hot exhaust manifold, thus igniting and causing the airplane's fuel tanks to explode. Samoan fautasi and the seaplane tender USS Avocet, sent to look for survivors, found none: only an oil slick, and some uniform coats and pieces of aluminum floating on the water. (Responding to angry complaints by Pan Am pilots following the Samoan Clipper's loss, the Sikorsky Aircraft Company extended the length of the dump valves on all S-42s, so that dumped fuel would not be deflected into the engine exhaust manifolds by the flaps). (Bender and Altschul 1982: 271-272; Brock 1978: 115; Cohen 1985: 11; Knott 1981: 131; Krupnick 1997: 144; Sunia 1998b)

 On January 11, 1942, at 2:26 a.m., "a Japanese submarine surfaced about 10,000 yards off the north coast [of Tutuila] between Southworth Point and Fagasa Bay," and fired about fifteen projectiles from its 5.5-inch deck gun at the the U.S. Naval Station Tutuila over a period of approximately ten minutes. The first shell struck the rear of the store of Frank Shimasaki, one of Tutuila's few Japanese residents. The store was closed at the time, as Mr. Shimasaki was interned because of his "foreign background." The next one inflicted slight damage on the naval dispensary, the third landed on the lawn behind the naval quarters known as "Centipede Row," while the fourth hit the stone seawall outside the customs house. The others fell harmlessly into the harbor. "The fire was not returned, notwithstanding the eagerness of the Samoan Marines to test their skill against the enemy....No American or Samoan Marines were wounded." Commander Edwin B. Robinson, who was bicycling behind Centipede Row, was wounded in the knee by a piece of shrapnel and "a member of the colorful native Fita Fita Guard" received minor injuries; they were the only casualties. This was the only time that the Japanese attacked Tutuila during World War II, but "Japanese submarines did patrol the waters around Samoa prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor, and were active in the area throught the war." (Anonymous 1945: 9; Anonymous 1997a; Bearss 1978, 1981: 83; Burke 1945b: 42; Denfeld 1989a: 21; Gray 1960: 241; Hough et al. 1958: 88; Sherrod 1952: 48; Woodbury 1946: 329-330)

 January 12:

On January 12, 1884, Charles Armijo Woodruff, American Samoa's 10th naval governor (acting: December 6, 1914-March 1, 1915) was born in Santa Fe, New Mexico. (USNHC: Woodruff RO) 

On January 12, 1914, the Governor of American Samoa, Commander Clark Daniel Stearns, published his "Regulation No. 2-1914: License of Vehicles Engaged in Inter-Island Traffic." (Noble 1931: 44-45) 

On January 12, 1925, President Calvin Coolidge signed Executive Order No. 4125, which, under the authority of Section 28 (e) of the Immigration Act of 1924, gave consular powers to the Governors of American Samoa and Guam. (Darden n.d.: 7) 

On January 12, 1930, Commodore Geoffrey Blake, RN, commanding "HMS Dunedin, flagship of the Royal Navy's small New Zealand station, sailed into Apia Harbor at 4 pm....with men from the Royal Marines and a seaplane from the Hobsonville air base aboard." Western Samoa's Administrator, Colonel Stephen Allen, had requested these forces to hunt down Mau members who were hiding in the bush behind the villages of Vaiusu, Le'auva'a, Faleasi'u and Fasito'otai. (Field 1984: 170)

 On January 12, 1948, Captain Edward Stanley Kellogg, 15th naval governor of American Samoa (September 4, 1923-March 17, 1925), was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery, following funeral services at Gawler's Chapel, 1756 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. Pallbearers included retired Rear Admirals Horatio G. Gillmor, Harley H. Christy and John D. Beuret, and retired Captains Adelbert Althouse and Chester C. Wells. (Anonymous 1948a; 1948b)

January 13:

 On January 13, 1928, Western Samoan Mau leader Olaf Frederick Nelson was deported from Western Samoa to exile in New Zealand. On this date, the Mau's members wore their distinctive uniform for the first time. It consisted of a maroon turban, blue (some accounts say purple) 'ie lavalava with a single white stripe, and a white singlet. (Field 1984: 109) 

On January 13, 1930, Colonel Stephen Shepard Allen, the New Zealand Administrator of Western Samoa, declared the Mau to be a seditious organization. (Field 1984: 165)

On January 13, 1938, the Auckland Herald Report carried this story about the loss of the Samoan Clipper:


Loss of the Samoan Clipper with her entire crew of seven was announced yesterday by Pan American Airways. The Clipper was making her first commercial flight from Pago Pago to Auckland on Wednesday, and is believed to have been blown to fragments by an explosion, the cause of which is not definitely known. Details of the dead are:--

 Captain Edwin C. Musick, master of the Samoan Clipper, aged about 43 years, married, of San Francisco. Captain Cecil G. Sellers, acting as first officer, married, with children, of Manila.  Mr. P.S. Brunk, second officer, of Honolulu.   Mr. F.J. McLean, navigator, aged about 38 years, of Alameda.   Mr. J.W. Stickrod, flight engineer, single, of Honolulu.   Mr. J.A. Brooks, flight mechanic, married, with two young sons, of Honolulu.
 A Press Association cablegram from Pago Pago says:--

 The U.S.S. Avocet has returned from her search for the clipper, bringing bits of wreckage and burned clothing, the smallness of which is regarded as bearing out the belief that the Clipper was destroyed by a terrific explosion. No bodies were found, and it is believed they never will be found.

The Chief Boatswain, Mr. H.S. Bogan, said: 'Bits of wood and paper covered the sea. Apparently they were fragments from the interior of the flying-boat, measuring from an inch or two square to six inches square. There were no large pieces. We found a pair of trousers containing a bent tie-clasp, which it is believed belonged to the assistant engineering officer, Mr. J.A. Brooks. We also picked up a coat bearing the Pan American insignia, filled with holes, apparently due to the explosion, and a small section of the chart board, together with a book of navigation tables.'" (Krupnick 1997: 151)

January 14

 On January 14, 1876, the "Three Consuls" (of England, Germany and the United States) issued a proclamation withdrawing foreign subjects from the jurisdiction of the Samoan government. (Morrell 1960: 218)

January 15:

On January 15, 1870, Clark Daniel Stearns, the ninth naval governor of American Samoa (July 4, 1913-October 2, 1914), was born in Big Rapids, Michigan. (USNHC: Stearns RO)

 On January 15, 1924, Mr. Lester H. Thornburg relieved Mr. John F. Harris as Principal of the Poyer School in Anua, American Samoa. (Bryan 1927: 89) 

On January 15, 1934, Mr. Alfred Matthes, a German planter in Western Samoa, was authorized to establish a branch of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP or "Nazi Party") there by NSDAP District Leader E.W. Bohle. "Matthes made himself the first [Nazi Party] leader in Samoa and at once began to receive literature and printed propaganda from the Auslands Abteilung [Foreign Branch] of the Nazi Party in Hamburg. This literature, etc., was freely distributed among the Germans in Western Samoa." (Burke 1945c: 114)

 On January 15, 1936, Lieutenant Commander Thomas Benjamin Fitzpatrick relieved Captain Otto Carl Dowling and began his six-day term as American Samoa's 24th naval governor (acting: until January 20, 1936). (USNHC: Fitzpatrick RO)

 On January 15, 1936, Captain George Bertram Landenberger, American Samoa's 21st naval governor (May 12, 1932-April 10, 1934), died of sarcoma of the chest at the Naval Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (USNHC: Landenberger RO)

 On January 15, 1938, a memorial service for Captain Edwin Musick and the crew of the Samoan Clipper was held aboard MV Matua, a ship belonging to the Union Steamship Company of New Zealand. The Matua's log book recorded the occasion as follows:

"3.52 pm.Rang Stand By.  3.56 pm.Stop.   4.00 pm. Smooth sea, mod. Nthly. Swell, Fine & Clear. 

Memorial service for crew of Pan-American flying boat "Samoan Clipper" held over spot where flying boat crashed and sank with all hands at 9am. 11th.Jan.1938.  Lat.   14.08 S.  Long. 170.51 W.  4.12 pm.Full Speed."

 A "giant orchid wreath was prepared for the memorial service" by the people of Tutuila, and was dropped into the ocean at the crash site. (Krupnick 1997: 148-150)

 On January 15, 1943, the attack transport USS American Legion (APA 35), 13,729 tons, entered Pago Pago Harbor at 5:45 p.m. At 7:30, the 3rd Marine Raider Battalion embarked, en route to Espiritu Santo in the New Hebrides. (Bearss 1978-1981: 1-A)

 On January 15, 1944, the First Samoan Battalion, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve was disbanded, and its personnel were assigned to the Marine Barracks at the U.S. Naval Station Tutuila. The battalion's strength was "9 Marine officers, 1 Navy officer, 32 American Marines and 494 Samoan Marines." (Anonymous 1945: 10)

 On January 15, 1947, Tolia ("Tony") Solaita, Samoa's only major league baseball player (New York Yankees, Kansas City Royals, California Angels, Montreal Expos, Toronto Blue Jays) was born in Nu'uuli, American Samoa. (Sutter 1989: 208)

 On January 15, 1970, John Morse Haydon, American Samoa's ninth appointed civilian governor, became the Territory's first Historic Preservation Officer (then called "State Liaison Officer"). In a letter to National Park Service Director George B. Hartzog, he wrote: "To the best of my knowledge, there is no state liaison officer, so I therefore designate myself as the State Liaison Officer, and I look forward to working with your office." (Haydon-Hartog 01/15/1970)

 On January 15, 1975, Peace Corps Group 15, minus 11 of its original 77 members (but still the largest Peace Corps group ever to serve in Western Samoa) was sworn in at Samoa College. (Sorensen: OPR)

  January 16:

On January 16, 1888, "Asi of Vaimauga, Mauga Manuma of Pago Pago and Tuiletufuga of Apia" were exiled by the Germans to Jaluit in the Marshall Islands as associates of Malietoa Laupepa, who had been exiled the previous September. (Bryan 1927: 32)

On January 16, 1891, on Tutuila, the United States Government purchased "Parcel No. 1," "The Goat Island area, 1 rod, 1 perch....from natives....for the sum of $214.29." (Anonymous 1894: 13)

 On January 16, 1903, each matai who signed the Deed of Cession of Tutuila received a watch, a medal and a diploma from President Theodore Roosevelt. (Bryan 1927: 49)

 On January 16, 1930, Flight Lieutenant Sidney Wallingford of the New Zealand Permanent Air Force flew the first two patrols in his float-equipped De Havilland Tiger Moth in an attempt to spot Mau members hiding in the forests of western 'Upolu. (Field 1984: 171)

 On January 16, 1935, there occurred a "Native welcome to Cardinal McRory in Pago Pago, on his return from the Eucharistic Congress of Melbourne." (Heslin 1995: vi)

On January 16, 1938, Mr. Paul Hessmann arrived from Germany to open a German school at Vaimea, Western Samoa. The school was supported by subscriptions from local Germans. (Burke 1945c: 116) 

On January 16, 1944, Lieutenant Commander C.T. Gilliam, USN, recommended to the Commander, Service Squadron, South Pacific Force, that the U.S. Marine contingent on 'Upolu be reduced to three officers and 26 enlisted men. He also recommended that salvage operations begin. (Burke 1945c: 58) 

January 17:

On January 17, 1878, a treaty which "merely guaranteed the United States a site for a naval station at Pango Pango [sic] (though not the exclusive privileges of the unratified treaty of 1872)" was signed by Le Mamea Maaka, Samoa's envoy to the United States, and the U.S. Secretary of State, William M. Evarts. (Morrell 1960: 222; Sunia 1998a)


 On January 17, 1987, Hurricane "Tusi," a "howling hurricane that destroyed virtually 100% of the structures in Faleasao, Fitiuta and Sili, [and] 90% of the structures in Ta'u and Ofu and half of those in Olosega" ripped through the Manu'a Islands, but avoided Tutuila. (Sagapolutele 01/17/1997b)

 January 18:

 On January 18, 1863, Edwin William Gurr, newspaper editor, Mau leader and author of Tutuila's Deed of Cession, was born in Westbury, Tasmania, Australia. (Theroux 1985a: 41) 

On January 18, 1927, the "Secretary of the Navy [Curtis D. Wilbur] announced that Captain Waldo Evans, Retired, USN, has been appointed Governor of the Virgin Islands, to succeed Captain Martin E. Trench who died on January 6, 1927." (Captain Evans was American Samoa's 13th naval governor: November 11, 1920-March 1, 1922). (USNHC: Evans RO)

On January 18, 1942, USS Tutuila (PR-4; the first U.S. Navy ship to be so named) was decommissioned at Chungking, China, and her crew were flown out of the city. (Mooney VII, 1981: 367)

On January 18, 1987, Samoa Air commenced operations at the Pago Pago International Airport as a commuter airline, flying De Havilland Twin Otter aircraft to Manu'a, Western Samoa and Niue, under the direction of James and Constance Porter of Anchorage, Alaska. (Sagapolutele 01/17/1997a)

 January 19:

 On January 19, 1942, at the U.S. Naval Station Tutuila, "information was received that a powerful task force was closing in. 'Condition Red' sounded, and the 7th Defense Battalion girded itself to resist an amphibious assault. Word soon spread that these ships were part of a convoy bringing reinforcements. Later in the day, a flight of planes launched from the carrier Wasp roared over the island, and a float plane from one of the cruisers landed in Pago Pago Harbor." (Bearss 1978-1981: 83)

 On January 19, 1942, the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise's task force, commanded by Vice Admiral William Frederick Halsey, Jr., joined the escort forces (USS Yorktown and Task Force 17) for the 2nd Marine Brigade, en route to Tutuila. (Morison III, 1948: 259; Willmott 1983: 149)

 On January 19, 1944, the "Aggregate strength of the defense force" on 'Upolu was as follows: US Army: 2539; US Navy: 529; US Marine Corps: 26; New Zealand Defense Force: 119; Total: 3213. (Burke 1945c: 65)

 On January 19, 1944, a ships' service store was put into operation at the U.S. Naval Station Tutuila's ship repair facility. (Burke 1945b: 143)

January 20:

 On January 20, 1914, American Samoa's Governor, Commander Clark Daniel Stearns, issued his "Regulation No. 3-1914: Protection of Vegetation Against Animals," which stated that animal owners who "wilfully or negligently allow" their animals to "run at large and destroy or damage any fruits, flowers, vegetables or other things of value, upon conviction shall be liable to a fine of not exceeding $200 or imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months, with or without hard labor, in the discretion of the court." (Noble 1931: 19) 

On January 20, 1936, Captain MacGillivray Milne relieved Lieutenant Commander Thomas Benjamin Fitzpatrick and became American Samoa's 25th naval governor (until June 3, 1938). (USNHC: Milne RO)

On January 20, 1937, Messrs. Alfred Matthes and Gerhard Stoeicht, founders of Western Samoa's National Socialist German Workers' Party ("Nazi" Party), returned to Apia from the Nazi Party's World Congress in Hamburg, Germany. (Burke 1945c: 116) 

On January 20, 1942, the 2nd Marine Brigade, consisting of "approximately 5600 officers and enlisted men," commanded by Brigadier General Henry L. Larsen, USMC, arrived in Pago Pago Harbor. Larsen, a Naval Academy graduate (Class of 1913) who had served in all of the Marine Corps' battles in France in World War I,  became Commandant, U.S. Naval Station Tutuila (until June, 1942) and Commander, Samoan Defense Group (which included American Samoa and Western Samoa; Funafuti, Nanumea and Nukufetau in the Ellice Islands; the Wallis Islands; Penrhyn and Aitutaki in the Cook Islands, and Bora Bora in the Society Islands, and was the largest of the Pacific defense groups). (Burke 1945b: 23, 44; Denfeld 1989a: 22; Hough et al. 1958: 88)

On January 20, 1985, at Stanford Stadium in Stanford, California, San Francisco 49ers nose tackle Manu Tuiasosopo of Long Beach, California (No. 78; born August 30, 1957; attended UCLA) became the second Samoan member of a Super Bowl team, and the first Samoan to play in a Super Bowl (XIX). Final score: San Francisco 49ers 38, Miami Dolphins 16. (NFL 1987: 128; Wiebusch 1990: 292-304: 381)

January 21:

On January 21, 1915, Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels approved the establishment of two branch dispensaries at Leone and Ta'u, American Samoa. Two additional hospital stewards were authorized. (Bryan 1927: 76)

 On January 21, 1928, the Mau imposed a sa (boycott) on all palagi- and afakasi-owned stores in Apia, including O.F. Nelson and Co. (following Mau leader O.F. Nelson's instructions). The Mau members, wearing their uniforms, hung around the stores, thus increasing their visibility. They were careful to remain non-violent and not to antagonize the police, and obeyed orders to move along. (Field 1984: 110) 

On January 21, 1976, Rear Admiral John Gould Moyer, American Samoa's 29th naval governor (June 5, 1942-February 8, 1944), died in Honolulu, Hawaii. (USNHC: Moyer RO)

 January 22:

On January 22, 1943, on Tutuila, the Training Officer of the Samoan Defense Group said that the purpose of the Marine Corps' Advanced Jungle Warfare Training Center, located in Malaeimi Valley, was to "prepare infantry replacements to take their places in combat organizations, training programs stressed conditioning marches and exercises, individual combat, cover and concealment, field fortifications, infiltration tactics and countermeasures, sniper tactics and countermeasures, infantry weapons, jungle warfare, small unit tactics, and amphibious training." (Condit et al. 1956: 182) 

On January 22, 1989, in Super Bowl XXIII at Joe Robbie Stadium in Miami, Florida, San Francisco 49ers left guard Jesse Sapolu of Honolulu, Hawaii (No. 61; born March 10, 1961; attended the University of Hawaii) became the fourth Samoan member of a Super Bowl team, and the third Samoan to play in a Super Bowl. Final score: San Francisco 49ers 20, Cincinnati Bengals 16. (NFL 1987: 92; Wiebusch 1990: 348-360; 381)

January 23:

 On January 23, 1885, Doctor C. Stuebel, the German Consul in Samoa, raised the German flag at Mulinu'u, 'Upolu, as a "public manifestation" of the taking possession "as security, of all the land which now constitutes all the municipality of Apia." (This was supposed to be a reprisal for the alleged wrongs committed against Germany by the Samoan Government). (Bryan 1927: 29)

 On January 23, 1900, Malotutoatasi I'iga Sauni Kuresa, composer of the National Anthem of the Independent State of Western Samoa ("The Flag of Freedom"), was born in Suvavou, Fiji to Pastor I'iga Tafunai Kuresa and his wife Fa'alia. He was reputed to be one of the few people "who could play two parts on two different cornets simultaneously, the other well-known one being the jazz musician, 'Satchmo' [Louis Armstrong]." (Warburton 1996: 35-36) 

On January 23, 1903, on Tutuila, the U.S. Government purchased "Parcel No. 44: Milo Milo," totalling 0.26 acres, from "Lisiate & quit claim grantors" for $926.07. (Anonymous 1960: 4) 

On January 23, 1918, the New Government High School (later named the "Poyer School") was dedicated in Anua, American Samoa; its total cost was $25,000. The principal was Mr. David Dykstra; his staff included Fa'atoia Tufele and Nelson Uaine, who had been educated at the Hilo Boarding School. (Bryan 1927: 87) 

On January 23, 1942, Vice Admiral William Frederick Halsey, Jr.'s carrier task force, and the Matson Line ships carrying the 2nd Marine Brigade, (consisting of the 8th Marines, 10th Marines and 2nd Defense Battalion) arrived in Pago Pago Harbor. (Hough et al. 1958: 205; Morison III, 1948: 259; Sherrod 1952: 48)

January 24:

 On January 24, 1879, a German-Samoan treaty was signed to establish a German naval station at Saluafata, 'Upolu, Samoa. (Bryan 1927: 25)

On January 24, 1982, at the Pontiac Silverdome in Detroit, Michigan, Cincinnati Bengals quarterback Jack Thompson ("the Throwin' Samoan") became the first Samoan member of a Super Bowl team, in Super Bowl XVI  (but, since he did not play, he was not the first Samoan to play in a Super Bowl). Final score: (San Francisco 49ers 26, Cincinnati Bengals 21). (Wiebusch 1990: 250-262; 381)

 January 25:

 On January 25, 1910, a special meeting was held to consider the incidence of hookworm in the Territory of American Samoa. The meeting was attended by "all the representatives of the various districts, counties and villages, Governor [Captain John F.] Parker, the Secretary of Native Affairs, the Captain of the Yard, Doctor [P.S.] Rossiter and the Chaplain." Dr. Rossiter (who later became Surgeon  General of the Navy)  "found that 82.5 per cent of 250 Samoan civilians examined, and a like percentage of members of the Fita Fita, were infested, which indicated that at least half of the population of Tutuila harbored the worm, and he concluded that a major public health crisis was at hand."  (Bryan 1927: 70; Gray 1960: 168-170)

 On January 25, 1926, the hurricane relief food given to American Samoa by the Navy Department (see entry for January 1, 1926) arrived in Pago Pago Harbor. (Bryan 1927: 4)

 On January 25, 1942, Admiral William Frederick Halsey, Jr.'s carrier task force, after escorting the 2nd Marine Brigade to Tutuila, departed American Samoa to refuel at Howland Island, 1,000 miles to the northeast. Then, the group steamed to the Gilbert and Marshall Islands, and launched air strikes against Japanese bases there. (Morison III, 1948: 260)

On January 25, 1942, Brigadier General Henry L. Larsen, Military Governor of American Samoa sent "Five Germans, one Japanese and [a] naturalized American, who was a Swede by birth" to the U.S. mainland for internment. These people had been in protective custody as potential enemy aliens. "Three Japanese and one German were kept in custody until 7 March, when they were released but kept under observation." (Hudson 1994: 24)

 On January 25, 1998, in Super Bowl XXXIII, Denver Broncos' defensive tackle Ma'a Junior Tanuvasa became the ninth Samoan member of a Super Bowl team, and the tenth Samoan to play in a Super Bowl, as the Broncos defeated the Green Bay Packers, 31-24. (Stevens OPR 1998)

 January 26:

 On January 26, 1942, Lieutenant Colonel William L. Bales, the 2nd Marine Brigade's intelligence officer, flew from Tutuila to Apia to confer with New Zealand authorities and conduct a reconnaissance of 'Upolu and Savai'i. (Hough et al. 1958: 89)

 On January 26, 1946, the second USS Tutuila (ARG-4) dropped anchor at Taku, China, continuing to serve as a maintenance vessel for ships engaged in the repatriation of Japanese prisoners of war. (Mooney VII, 1981: 367) 

On January 26, 1956, the first official U.S. air mail was delivered to American Samoa. (Theroux 1985)

 On January 26, 1959, Captain MacGillivray Milne, 25th naval governor of American Samoa (January 20, 1936-June 3, 1938), passed away at the Oak Knoll Hospital in Oakland, California at age 77. Captain Milne was "a veteran of the Philippine campaign at the turn of the century, the Mexican campaign of 1914, and World Wars I and II." He was buried in Tenafly, New Jersey. (Anonymous n.d. B)

 On January 26, 1986, in Super Bowl XX at the Louisiana Superdome in New Orleans, New England Patriots running back Mosiula "Mosi" Tatupu of Honolulu, Hawaii (No. 30; born April 26, 1955; attended the University of Southern California) became the third Samoan to play on a Super Bowl team, and the second Samoan to play in a Super Bowl. Final score: Chicago Bears 46, New England Patriots 10. (NFL 1987: 62; Wiebusch 1990: 306-318; 381)

 On January 26, 1997, New England Patriots' nose tackle Pio Alika Sagapolutele (born 11/28/1969 in American Samoa)  became the eighth Samoan member of a Super Bowl team, and the seventh Samoan to play in a Super Bowl. In Super Bowl XXXI, the Green Bay Packers defeated the Patriots, 35-21. (Saili 1998: B3; Stevens OPR 1998) 

January 27:

 On January 27, 1837, future Mau leader Tuimaleali'ifano Siu was born in Western Samoa. (Field 1984: 224)

 On January 27, 1920, John Morse Haydon, American Samoa's ninth appointed civilian governor, was born in Billings, Montana. (Haydon Papers 1969: Box 1)

 On January 27, 1927, the Catholic seminary at Moamoa, 'Upolu was blessed. (Heslin 1995: vi) 

On January 27, 1943, six Douglas SBD-3 Dauntless dive bombers from VMSB-151 (Marine Corps Scout Bombing Squadron 151) and nine Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat fighters from VMF-441 (Marine Corps Fighter Squadron 441) left Tutuila to reinforce the Wallis Islands, which were part of the Samoan Defense Group. (Denfeld 1989a: 31)

 On January 27, 1945, Captain Ralph Waldo Hungerford relieved Captain Allen Hobbs, and became American Samoa's 31st naval governor (until September 3, 1945). (USNHC: Hungerford RO)

 January 28:

 On January 28, 1891, American historian Henry Brooks Adams and artist John LaFarge left Western Samoa after visiting Robert Louis Stevenson at Vailima. (Theroux 1985)

 On January 28, 1919, Colonel Robert Ward Tate succeeded Lieutenant Colonel Robert Logan as New Zealand's Administrator of Western Samoa. (Field 1984: 50-59) 

On January 28, 1990, in Super Bowl XXIV at the Louisiana Superdome, San Francisco 49ers center Jesse Sapolu of Honolulu, Hawaii (No. 61; born March 10, 1961; attended the University of Hawaii) made his second Super Bowl appearance, thus becoming the first Samoan to play in two Super Bowls, and the only Samoan to play in two consecutive Super Bowls. Final score: San Francisco 49ers 55, Denver Broncos 10. (NFL 1992: 130; Wiebusch 1990: 362-374; 381)

On January 28, 1996, in Super Bowl XXX, the Dallas Cowboys defeated the Pittsburgh Steelers, 27-17, at Sun Devil Stadium in Tempe, Arizona. The Cowboys' starting offensive tackle was Mark Tuinei of Honolulu, Hawaii (No. 71; born March 31, 1960; attended the University of Hawaii), who made his third Super Bowl appearance, thus becoming the second Samoan to play in three Super Bowls. Pittsburgh Steelers' nose tackle Jack Palelei, Jr. became became the seventh Samoan member of a Super Bowl team, and the sixth Samoan to play in a Super Bowl. (Famighetti 1997: 873; Saili 1998: B3; Stevens OPR 1998)

 January 29:

 On January 29, 1914, American Samoa's Governor, Commander Clark Daniel Stearns, enacted "Regulation No. 4-1914: Safety of Passengers on Vessels Coming into or Departing from American Samoa," and "Regulation No. 5-1914: Government Surveys." (Noble 1931: 46-47; 54) 

On January 29, 1960, Greg Louganis, part-Samoan future Olympic diving champion, first male double Gold Medalist in back-to-back Olympic games (1984 and 1988) and member of the Olympic Hall of Fame, was born in San Diego, California. (Sutter 1989: 198)

 On January 29, 1966, a hurricane, which had originated northeast of Samoa and had changed direction several times, began moving west across the Samoan islands, causing widespread destruction until the end of January. Western Samoa's weather station at Cape Mulinu'u reported gusts up to 94 miles per hour, while American Samoa reported gusts exceeding 110 mph. 800 people were left homeless in American Samoa; 5 deaths were reported. In Western Samoa, over 50,000 lost their homes, and 11 were killed. The Cook, Tokelau and Wallis Islands were also damaged. (South Pacific hurricanes were not given names at that time). (Risnychok-Sorensen 07/05/1996: 03; Eustis 1979: 170-171)

 On January 29, 1995, San Francisco 49ers center Jesse Sapolu of Honolulu, Hawaii (No. 61; born March 10, 1961; attended the University of Hawaii) became the first Samoan to play in three Super Bowls. Final score in Super Bowl XXIX: San Francisco 49ers 49, San Diego Chargers 26. San Diego Chargers' linebacker Tiaina "Junior" Se'au (No. 55, born January 19, 1969 in Oceanside, California, attended University of Southern California), became the sixth (and youngest) Samoan member of a Super Bowl team, and the fifth Samoan to play in a Super Bowl. This was the only time in Super Bowl history that both teams had Samoan players. (NFL 1992: 130; Anoa'i OPR)

January 30:

 On January 30, 1905, Commander Charles Brainard Taylor Moore became the fifth naval governor of American Samoa (relieving Commander Edmund B. Underwood; until May 21, 1908). He received the first formal presidential appointment as "Governor of Tutuila" (but not "Governor of American Samoa" from President Theodore Roosevelt, upon assuming the governorship. (Bryan 1927: 54; Gray 1960: 158; USNHC: Moore RO)

 On January 30, 1917, Colonel Robert Logan, the New Zealand Administrator of Western Samoa, issued his "Proclamation No. 42," which forbade Chinese indentured laborers from entering Samoan houses, and forbade Samoans from allowing the Chinese to do so. The punishment for these crimes was a "fine not exceeding £5, or by imprisonment with labor not exceeding six weeks." (Field 1984: back endpapers)

 On January 30, 1970, the American Samoa Government's News Bulletin reported that "One item on display [in the Jean P. Haydon Museum] is the moon rocks brought back by the Apollo 11 astronauts and presented to the people of American Samoa by President Nixon." (ASGNB: 01/30/1970) 

On January 30, 1974, A Pan American Airways Boeing 707 jet airliner (Flight 806, arriving on Wednesday night from Auckland, New Zealand with 91 passengers aboard) crashed at Pago Pago International Airport at 10:41 p.m. 86 people were killed, including Captain Leroy A. Petersen and the entire flight crew. Five passengers were injured: four seriously, and one "minor." The plane was "demolished by impact and fire." The crash was variously attributed to poor visibility, pilot error or wind shear. A violent storm was raging when the plane crashed. (Schumacher 1974; Lee OPR 1996; Shaffer OPR 1996; Weilenman OPR 1996)

 On January 30, 1994, in Super Bowl XXVIII, the Dallas Cowboys defeated the Buffalo Bills, 30-13, at the Georgia Dome in Atlanta. The Cowboys' starting offensive tackle was Mark Tuinei of Honolulu, Hawaii (No. 71; born March 31, 1960; attended the University of Hawaii), who became the second Samoan to play in two Super Bowls and the second Samoan to play in two consecutive Super Bowls. (Balzer 1996: 26, 211; Shaffer OPR 1997)

 January 31:

On January 31, 1840, Lieutenant William H. Hudson, second-in-command of the U.S. Exploring Expedition (the "Wilkes Expedition") aboard USS Peacock, sighted Swains Island and named it for Captain W.C. Swain of New Bedford, Massachusetts, who had reported it several years earlier. Hudson saw no people, but he did see coconut palms, which he believed were sure signs of an earlier Polynesian occupation. He noted that Quiros's 1606 location was incorrect. (Gray 1960: 212)

On January 31, 1912, the French Navy's gunboat Zelée visited the U.S. Naval Station Tutuila, and was allowed to take 50 tons of coal on board, so that she could complete her cruise to Suva, Fiji. (Thompson 1990: 12)

 On January 31, 1928, Western Samoa's Administrator, Major General Sir George Spafford Richardson, reported that a group of Mau members marched through the streets singing what he called "defiant and obscene songs." Claiming that he had identified the leaders, he ordered them to appear before the Fono a Faipule to explain their conduct. (Field 1984: 110)

 On January 31, 1939, George Egerton Leigh Westbrook---English trader, adventurer, friend of Robert Louis Stevenson and Mau member---died in Apia at age 78. (Theroux 1985) 

On January 31, 1943, the enlisted strength of the First Samoan Battalion, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve was listed as 515. The unit's official history states that "These late increases can be attributed to the coming-of-age of the younger boys who waited until 18 to enlist." (Anonymous 1945: 10)

 On January 31, 1993, in Super Bowl XXVII, the Dallas Cowboys defeated the Buffalo Bills, 52-17, at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California. The Cowboys' starting offensive tackle was Mark Pulemau Tuinei of Honolulu, Hawaii (No. 71; born March 31, 1960 in Nanakuli, Oahu, Hawaii; attended the University of Hawaii), who became the fifth Samoan member of a Super Bowl team, the fourth Samoan to play in a Super Bowl and the second Samoan to play in two Super Bowls. (NFL 1992: 89; Shaffer OPR 1997)





@ 2002